The incidence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and
coronary heart disease, which form the core components of the metabolic syndrome,
is increasing at an alarming rate in almost all countries. The incidence of the metabolic syndrome is especially high in the Indian subcontinent. This increase in the incidenceof the metabolic syndrome has been attributed to lack of exercise, increase in the consumption of energy-dense food, and environmental changes. What is more disturbing is an enormous increase in the incidence of obesity in children, as a result of which these children are likely to develop other features of the metabolic syndrome as they grow to adulthood.
Despite many studies, the exact cause(s) for this alarming increase in the incidence of the metabolic syndrome is not clear. It is likely that insulin resistance, low-grade systemic inflammation, low birth weight (especially in the Indian subcontinent), maternal malnutrition (both over- and undernutrition), and perinatal and early-childhood diet that is high in carbohydrate and saturated fat could be responsible for this epidemiology. There is reasonable evidence to suggest that obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, which are all the components of the metabolic syndrome, may occur as a result of dysfunction of specific hypothalamic nuclei and their peptide and monoaminergic neurotransmitters, an issue that has not been given its due importance.
2. History, Definition, and Diagnosis of the Metabolic Syndrome
3. Insulin Resistance in the Metabolic Syndrome
4. Is It Necessary to Redefine the Metabolic Syndrome?
5. Is Insulin Resistance a Disorder of the Brain?
7. Perinatal Nutrition and Obesity
8. Essential Hypertension
9. Dietary Factors and Hypertension
10. Is Hypertension a Disorder of the Brain?
11. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
12. Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Particular Reference to Hypothalamus
13. Insulin and Insulin Receptors in the Brain and Their Role in the Pathogenesis of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
14. Insulin, Endothelial Nitric Oxide, and the Metabolic Syndrome
15. Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, the Metabolic Syndrome, and the Gut Microbiota
16. Is It Possible That the Metabolic Syndrome Originates in the Perinatal Period?
17. Essential Fatty Acids: Biochemistry and Physiology
18. Role of EFAs/PUFAs in Brain Growth and Development and Pathophysiology of the Metabolic Syndrome
19. EFAs/PUFAs and Their Metabolites in Insulin Resistance
20. EFAs/PUFAs and Atherosclerosis
Title: Metabolic Syndrome Pathophysiology The Role of Essential Fatty Acids
Author: UNDURTI N.